International Journal of Information Technology & Computer Science ( IJITCS )
Attitude is one of the factors that contribute to the abuse of disabled parking. The attitude’s components consist of affective, cognitive and behavioral may be formed in various ways including learning and persuasion. Using learning and persuasion approach, this study has produced a persuasive multimedia aiming to form a positive attitude toward disabled person in order to minimize the rate of disabled parking abuse. The persuasive multimedia was developed using Principle of Social Learning draws from Persuasive Technology as learning strategy at macro persuasion level, and modality and redundancy principles draw from Multimedia Learning Principles as design strategy at micro persuasion level. In order to measure the effectiveness of the persuasive multimedia, 93 respondents were selected in a 2x2 quasi experimental research design for experiment. Attitude components of affective, cognitive and behavioral were measured using adapted instrument from the Multi Dimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons with Disabilities (MAS). Result of the study shows that the persuasive multimedia which designed based on Social Learning Theory at macro persuasion level is capable of forming positive attitude toward disabled person. The cognitive component of the attitude found to be the most responsive component. In term of design strategy at the micro persuasion level, modality found to be the most significant strategy compare to redundancy. While males are more responsive to the persuasive multimedia compare to females.
persuasive technology, captology, multimedia learning, disabled person, attitude formation, social learning.
- Abelson, R. (1968). Theories of cognitive consistency theory. Chicago: Rand McNally.
- Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action control: From cognition to behavior. Berlin, Heidelber, New York: Springer-Verlag.
- Anna Tierney, (2002) A Study on Why People Abuse Handicapped Parking (Unpublished master’s thesis) University of Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, USA.
- Bandura, A. (1969). Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
- Bandura, A. (1973). Aggression: A social learning analysis. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
- Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press.
- Cope, John G. and Linda J. Allred. Illegal Parking in Handicapped Zones: Demographic Observations and Review of the Literature. Rehabilitation Psychology. 1990. Volume 35, 249-257.
- Daniel Katz (1937). Attitude Measurement as a Method in Social Psychology. Social Forces Vol. 15, No. 4, University of North Carolina Press.
- Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Orlando: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers.
- Eagly, Alice H. and Shelly Chaiken (1995), Attitude Strength, Attitude Structure and Resistance to Change, in Richard E. Petty and Jon A. Krosnick (eds.), Attitude Strength: Antecedents and Consequences, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Edward, Suzanne and Jeremy (2003). Handicap parking abuse: Policy solutions for Kentucky. Kentucky: Kentucky Council on Developmental Disabilities.
- Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
- Gagne, R. (1985). The conditions of learning (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston
- Heider, F. (1959). The psychology of interpersonal relations. New York: Wiley.
- Hovland, C., Janis, I., & Kelley, H. (1953). Communication and persuasion. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
- Irving Sarnoff and Daniel Katz, The Motivational Bases of Attitude Change, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49 (1954), pp. 115-124.
- Keller, J. M. (1983). Motivational design of instruction. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: An overview of their current status. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
- Kimura, D. (1996). Sex, Sexual Orientation And Sex Hormones Influence Human Cognitive Function. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 6, 259-263.
- Kruger, D. J. (2001). An Integration Of Proximate And Ultimate Influences For Altruistic Helping Intentions. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering; 62 (1-B), 601. (University Microfilms International; 2001, 601).
- Mayer, R. E. & Moreno, R. (1998). A Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning: Implications for Design Principles. Retrieved from http://www.unm.edu/~moreno/PDFS/chi.pdf.
- Moreno, R., & Mayer, R. (1999). Cognitive Principles Of Multimedia Learning: The Role Of Modality And Contiguity. Journal of Educational Psychology 91: 358–368.
- Mayer, R. E. (2001). Multimedia Learning. New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Persons with Disabilities Act 2008, ACT685/2008
- Road Transport Act 1987, ACT333/2006
- Scottish Government Social Research (2007). Tackling the abuse of off-street parking for people with disabilities in Scotland. Scotland: Department of Scottish Ministers.
- Seong Chong Toh, Waddah Ahmed Saleh Munassar, Wan Ahmad Jaafar W. Y. (2010). Redundancy effect in multimedia learning: A closer look. In C.H. Steel, M.J. Keppell, P. Gerbic & S. Housego (Eds.), Curriculum, Technology & Transformation For An Unknown Future. Proceedings Ascilite Sydney 2010 (pp.988-998).
- Simonson, M. (1979). Designing Instruction for Attitudinal Outcomes. Journal of Instructional Development 2(3), 15-19.
- Sobihatun Nur A. S. (2009). A Persuasive Multimedia Learning Environment (PMLE): Design Strategies for Reducing Children Dental Anxiety, Visual Informatics: Bridging Research and Practice, First International Visual Informatics Conference, IVIC 2009, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 2009 Journal Proceedings, pp 427-435.
- Taylor, C.J. (1998). Factors Affecting Behavior Toward People With Disabilities. Journal of Social Psychology, 138, 766-772.
- Triandis, H. (1971). Attitude and attitude change. New York: Wiley.
- Zahidah (2010). Persuasive Multimedia to Raise The Awareness of Obesity Among Students of Higher Education in Malaysia (Unpublished master’s thesis). Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia.